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Which of these people do you think is Hispanic? Look at them carefully Click the button to see if you are correct. The ways in which we personally acquire our own group identities are often complex.
Similarly, the way we assign group identity to others is not always straight forward. Race and ethnic group labels in America are not clearly based on criteria that everyone understand, agree with, and can easily use.
As a result, someone else may label you in a way that you consider inaccurate and very offensive. This can instantly create a barrier to open communication even if the slight was unintended.
To comprehend the human diversity of the United States or any other country, it is important to first understand the criteria commonly used for making group distinctions. Americans tend to see each other in terms of age, economic class, religion, genderethnicity, and race.
We are usually a member of a particular group for each of these criteria. Which of our group identities is most important varies with the social situation.
In America today, gender, ethnicity, and race often have the most far ranging impacts on us as individuals. Ethnicity refers to selected cultural and sometimes physical characteristics used to classify people into groups or categories considered to be significantly different from others.
In some cases, ethnicity involves merely a loose group identity with little or no cultural traditions in common. This is the case with many Irish and German Americans.
In contrast, some ethnic groups are coherent subcultures with a shared language and body of tradition. Newly arrived immigrant groups often fit this pattern. It is important not to confuse the term minority with ethnic group.
Ethnic groups may be either a minority or a majority in a population. Whether a group is a minority or a majority also is not an absolute fact but depends on the perspective. For instance, in some towns along the southern border of the U.
In small homogenous societiessuch as those of hunters and gatherers and pastoraliststhere is essentially only one ethnic group and no minorities. African American Senagalese For many people, ethnic categorization implies a connection between biological inheritance and culture.
They believe that biological inheritance determines much of cultural identity. If this were true, for instance, African American cultural traits, such as "black English", would stem from genetic inheritance.
We now know that this is not true--biological race and culture are not the same thing. The pioneering English anthropologist Edward Tylor may have been the first scientist to understand this fact and to state it in print.
Inhe wrote that cultural traits are entirely learned. Subsequently, a baby can be placed into another culture shortly after birth and can be thoroughly enculturated to that culture, regardless of their skin color, body shape, and other presumed racial features.
For example, both women in the photographs on the right are genetically African, but they do not speak the same language nor do they share any other significant cultural patterns due to the fact that they were brought up in very different societies.
The African American woman is far more similar culturally to her European American neighbors than to the West African woman from Senegal.
A race is a biological subspeciesor variety of a species, consisting of a more or less distinct population with anatomical traits that distinguish it clearly from other races. We are an extremely homogenous species genetically. As a matter of fact, all humans today are This homogeneity is very unusual in the animal kingdom.
Even our closest biological relatives, the chimpanzees have times more genetic variation than people. Orangutans have times more variation. It is now clear that our human "races" are primarily cultural creations, not biological realities.
The commonly held belief in the existence of human biological races is based on the false assumption that anatomical traits, such as skin color and specific facial characteristics, cluster together in single distinct groups of people. There are no clearly distinct "black", "white", or other races.
The popularly held view of human races ignores the fact that anatomical traits supposedly identifying a particular race are often found extensively in other populations as well. This is due to the fact that similar natural selection factors in different parts of the world often result in the evolution of similar adaptations.“Race” and the reality of human physical variation.
Scientists have known for many decades that there is little correlation between “race,” used in its popular sense, and actual physical variations in the human rutadeltambor.com the United States, for example, the people identified as African Americans do not share a common set of physical characteristics.
Modern Human Variation and Adaptation Introduction Historical Views of Human Variation The Concept of Race Heredity and Evolution OU T L I N E A P. there is an association between physical characteristics and such attributes as intelligence, morals, values, abilities, and .
“Race” and the reality of human physical variation. Scientists have known for many decades that there is little correlation between “race,” used in its popular sense, and actual physical variations in the human rutadeltambor.com the United States, for example, the people identified as African Americans do not share a common set of physical characteristics.
Modern Human Variation and Adaptation Introduction Historical Views of Human Variation The Concept of Race Heredity and Evolution OU T L I N E A P. there is an association between physical characteristics and such attributes as intelligence, morals, values, abilities, and even social and economic status.
Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography, and oceanography. Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Physical Education: Content and Design physical characteristics and performances of students in physical education classes, and to make decisions motor skills and movement patterns (e.g., biological, psychological, sociological, experiential, environmental) 4.
Perception in motor development.